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05-05-2006, 01:33 PM
From the anatomical point of view with the term "abdominal" they are defined both the antero-side muscles and the back muscles of the abdomen.

In this first analysis we deal there with the only antero-side muscles, of the aspects cinesiologici, of the methodologies of training and the exercises that are normally used.



Antero-side muscles of the abdomen and movements that complete

1) straight of the abdomen:

- it flexes the trunk and it tilts him/it from his/her own side;

- it lowers the ribs and it acts as espiratore.

2) oblique outside (or Great oblique) and

3) oblique inside (or Small oblique):

- they flex, they tilt from his/her own side and they rotate the trunk;

- they lower the ribs and they act as expiratory.

4) crossbeam:

- wheel the trunk and it lowers the ribs (espiratore);

- it intervenes particularly in the forced expiration.





Lines of action of the antero-side muscles of the abdomen





MAINTENANCE OF THE PHYSIOLOGICAL EQUILIBRIUM OF THE BASIN



The muscles of the abdomen constitute a system whose tonicity acquits different important functions. In fact, besides guaranteeing the estate of the entrailses and to contribute to a correct respiratory mechanics, has a role determined in the physiological equilibrium of the basin in how much, the muscles that insert you, can induce a rotatory movement involving himself/herself/itself as a couple of strengths.

The muscles flessori of the bust (Straight of the abdomen, Oblique outside and Oblique inside), and the writers of the thighs (Great gluteo, Bicepses femoral in the long head, Semitendinoso, Semimembranoso, Great adduttore, Piriforme) they have the tendency to rotate the basin in retroversione, therefore they have an action delordosizzante for the lumbar column. Contrarily, the muscles writers of the bust (Sacrospinale, Square of the loins, Spinal, Interspinali, Multifidi, Intertrasversari, dorsal Gran, Toothed back inferior) and the flessoris of the thighs (iliac Psoas, Straight anterior of the femoral Quadricipite, Sartorio, Tensore of the in general band, Pettineo, Long adduttore, Brief adduttore, Delicate) they have the tendency to make to rotate the basin in anteroversione, therefore they have an action lordosizzante for the lumbar column (Figure).



Equilibrium of the basin on the plain sagittale



The muscles flessori of the bust and the writers of the thighs (to) they have the tendency to rotate the basin in retroversione (rotation in sense counterclockwise in comparison to the figure), therefore they have an action delordosizzante for the lumbar column.

Contrarily, the muscles writers of the bust and the flessoris of the thighs (B) they have the tendency to make to rotate the basin in anteroversione (rotation in hourly sense in comparison to the figure), therefore they have an action lordosizzante for the lumbar column.

You/he/she must be kept in mind that an abdominal band opportunely strengthened allows to unload around the 40% of the weight gravante on the lumbar vertebrae.




Effects of the weakening of the appointed muscles

to the rotation of the basin in retroversione

The weakening of the muscles Flessori of the bust and Writers of the thighs it behaves an anteroversione of the basin and consequent accentuation of the lumbar lordosis.





A preventive action or of reestablishment of the anatomo-physiological situation of the loin-sacred region should follow two directive principals:

To always maintain strong the muscles flessori of the bust and the writers of the thighs in how much they bring the basin in position of retroversione (action delordosizzante). In this way the lordosis lumbar curtains to weaken and the loads discali is perpendicularly unloaded and in way fairly distributed on the whole surface of the vertebrae.


The strengthening must have effected with contraction (bending of the trunk) complete and stretching (extension of the trunk) incomplete. This formality of execution modifies in the time the anatomo-functional structure of the muscle so that the muscular abdomen it becomes shorter and the tendons are unchanged. To rest the length becomes shorter.

To lengthen and to maintain elastic the muscles writers of the bust in how much they oppose the retroversione of the basin (action lordosizzante). Therefore besides the exercises of stretching a muscular strengthening must be effected with exercises with contraction (extension of the trunk) incomplete and stretching (bending of the trunk) complete.


This formality of execution modifies in the time the anatomo-functional structure of the muscle so that the muscular abdomen it becomes shorter and the longest tendons. To rest the length increases.

As already says, an abdominal belt opportunely strengthened allows to unload around the 40% of the weight gravante on the lumbar vertebrae. A notable lightening of the load on the vertebrae is also determined by the correct position of the bust during the execution of the exercises.



METHODS AND EXERCISES TO TRAIN IN SELECTIVE WAY IT IS SPECIFIC THE ANTERO-SIDE MUSCLES OF THE ABDOMEN



To reduce, how much more possible, the intervention of the muscles flessori of the thighs (iliac Psoas, Sartorio, Tensore of the in general band, Pettineo, Straight anterior of the femoral Quadricipite, Long adduttore, Brief adduttore, Delicate). Therefore it is necessary to always maintain the thighs flexed on the basin. In this position the heads of extreme insertion of these muscles result brought closer and, therefore, you/they cannot practice an effective dynamic action (Figure).

The movement of bending of the chest on the basin and vice versa it has to extend to approach the two extreme heads of insertion of the antero-side muscles of the abdomen, therefore the pube and the iliac crests to the sternum (Figure).

In the execution of the torsions between the chest and the basin, movement that has the purpose to accent the intervention on the Oblique muscles, to correctly effect the exercise it is necessary to brake the movement before every rotation is concluded and to leave again without exploiting the passive movement of return. The movement of torsion, contemplated to the strengthening of the Oblique muscles, it never has to reach the position of maximum excursion. This would put in anomalous tension the external and central fibers of the fibrous ring (intervertebral disk) of the lumbar vertebrae with consequent tendency to the laceration of the fibers and a notable increase of the pressure on the inside nucleus of the ring that, he is especially performed also contemporarily a bending, the outside is pushed to.




Reduction of the tension of the muscles flessori of the thigh



In the supine position, the alignment of the thighs with the basin puts in tension the muscles flessori of the thighs, in particolar way the iliac Psoas (Pi) that, because of the insertion prossimale around last lumbar vertebrae, curtains to accent the lumbar lordosis.

With the bending of the thighs to around to the 60 it begins to stir the basin in how much it also begins the dynamic action of the abdominal muscles (To). at the same time an approach of the heads of insertion determines him and, therefore, the incapability to intervene in active way in the movement from the muscles flessori of the thighs. All this is underlined to the outside with the attenuation of the lumbar lordosis.




As the job locates him on the abdominal muscles

The dynamic job of the abdominal muscles begins when the basin starts to rotate and finishes with the maximum approach among the thoracic cage and to the pube.



In the Bending Of the Chest On the Basin it is gotten:

to) a dynamic job located of the abdominal muscles (to) when the lumbar region and the gluteis remain to earth and the rotation it happens around the lumbar vertebrae;

B) a static job of the abdominal muscles (To) if the rotation continues up to the sat position. The pursuance of the action happens thanks to the muscles flessori of the thighs on the basin, above all the Psoas-iliac one (Pi) and Straight anterior (King) of the femoral Quadricipite.

In the intermediary position, with the loins lifted by the ground, the lumbar vertebral load is notable and reaches the 170-180 Kgs in a person of ransom average.



In the Bending Of the Basin On the Chest a dynamic appointment is gotten and located of the abdominal muscles when the basin lifts him and draws near the more possible to the chest, making pivot on the lumbar vertebrae. The position of flexed thighs allows to attenuate the intervention of the muscles flessori of the thighs, particularly of the Psoas-iliac one.

The use of a tilted plan allows to move the maximum arm of lever, therefore the optimal load, on different angles of bending.



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